Landlords vs Tenants = Top vs Bottom? Class Positions in Rental Housing in Germany

Home ownership status is closely linked to social inequality in Germany, where tenants face several disadvantages in multiple dimensions. Even though Germany is one of the biggest renter and therefore landlord nations, in the context of the housing question it is the demand side that has been discussed and studied most. Less attention has been given to the supply side, particularly individual small-scale landlords. This article is one of the first attempts to shed light on the largest provider group that literally holds the keys to homes in its hands. Drawing on quantitative data, this article examines the socioeconomic profiles of landlords compared to tenants over time, finding landlords in the upper strata and witnessing long-term wealth divides in relation to tenants. Coupled with structural power imbalances during tenancies, this research seeks to stimulate research on private renting in the future from a class perspective.

187 views

References

Arundel, R. 2017. ‘Equity Inequity: Housing Wealth Inequality, Inter and Intra-generational Divergences, and the Rise of Private Landlordism.’ Housing, Theory and Society 34 (2): 176–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/14036096.2017.1284154

Balzarini, J., M. L. Boyd 2021. ‘Working With Them: Small-Scale Landlord Strategies for Avoiding Evictions.’ Housing Policy Debate 31 (3-5): 425–445. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2020.1800779

Best, H., C. Wolf 2012. ‘Modellvergleich und Ergebnisinterpretation in Logit- und Probit-Regressionen.’ Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 64 (2): 377–395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11577-012-0167-4

Bourdieu, P. 1996. Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement Taste. Cambridge: Harvard University.

Byrne, M. 2020. ‘Towards a Political Economy of the Private Rental Sector.’ Critical Housing Analysis 7 (1): 103–113. https://doi.org/10.13060/23362839.2020.7.1.507 

Crook, T., P. A. Kemp (eds.) 2014. Private Rental Housing: Comparative Perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

DeLuca, S., E. Rosen 2022. ‘Housing Insecurity Among the Poor Today.’ Annual Review of Sociology 48 (1): 343–371. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-090921-040646 

European Central Bank 2020. The Household Finance and Consumption Survey: Wave 2017. Frankfurt am Main. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.ecb.europa.eu/home/pdf/research/hfcn/HFCS_Statistical_Tables_Wave2.pdf

Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development (BBSR) 2015. Privateigentümer von Mietwohnungen in Mehrfamilienhäusern. Bonn: BBSR. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.bbsr.bund.de/BBSR/DE/veroeffentlichungen/bbsr-online/2015/ON022015.html

Federal Ministry of the Interior and Community 2021. Faktenblätter zum deutschen Wohnungsmarkt 2021. Berlin: BBSR. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.die-wohnraumoffensive.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Faktenblaetter-Feb-2021/Faktenbla%CC%88tter_zum_deutschen_Wohnungsmarkt_2021_bf.pdf

Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development 2007. Investitionsprozesse im Wohnungsbestand unter besonderer Berücksichtigung privater Vermieter. Berlin: BMVBS/ BBR. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.bbsr.bund.de/BBSR/DE/veroeffentlichungen/ministerien/bmvbs/forschungen/2007/Heft129.html

Federal Statistical Office 2020. Wohnen in Deutschland. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.statistikportal.de/de/veroeffentlichungen/wohnen-deutschland

Federal Statistical Office 2021. Bestand und Struktur der Wohneinheiten und Wohnsituation der Haushalte. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.statistischebibliothek.de/mir/receive/DESerie_mods_00000077

Federal Statistical Office 2022. Finanzen und Steuern. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.statistischebibliothek.de/mir/receive/DESerie_mods_00000142

Federal Statistical Office 2023. Lohn- und Einkommenssteuerpflichtige: Positive Einkünfte aus Vermietung und Verpachtung. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www-genesis.destatis.de/genesis/online  [Code: 73111]

German Tenants’ Association 2022. Deutscher Mieterbund legt Prozess-Statistik 2021 vor. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.mieterbund.de/startseite/news/article/67989-deutscher-mieterbund-legt-prozess-statistik-2021-vor.html

Hochstenbach, C., B. Wind, R. Arundel 2020. ‘Resurgent Landlordism in a Student City: Urban Dynamics of Private Rental Growth.’ Urban Geography 42 (6): 769–791. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2020.1741974

Hochstenbach, C. 2022. ‘Landlord Elites on the Dutch Housing Market: Private Landlordism, Class, and Social Inequality.’ Economic Geography 98 (4): 327–354. https://doi.org/10.1080/00130095.2022.2030703

Interhyp 2021. Interhyp-Wohntraumstudie 2021. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.interhyp.de/ueber-interhyp/presse/interhyp-wohntraumstudie-2021-wunsch-nach-eigentum-steigt-erneut.html

Kadelke, P. 2023. ‘Private Vermieter/-innen in Deutschland. Kleine Gruppe mit großer Wirkung.’ in I.-P. Villa Braslavsky (ed.) Polarisierte Welten: Verhandlungen des 41. Kongresses der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie 2022. (in press)

Kohl, S. 2018. Entwicklung von Wohneigentum und Gesellschaft: Historische und vergleichende Perspektiven, 1920 (1950) – 2015. Köln: GESIS. https://doi.org/10.4232/1.12995 

McKee, K. 2012. ‘Young People, Homeownership and Future Welfare.’ Housing Studies 27 (6): 853–862. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2012.714463

OECD 2022a. Housing Tenure Distribution 2019. Paris: OECD. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.oecd.org/els/family/HM1-3-Housing-tenures.pdf

OECD 2022b. Social Housing Renting Stock. Paris. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.oecd.org/els/family/PH4-2-Social-rental-housing-stock.pdf

Ronald, R. 2018. ‘‘Generation Rent’ and Intergenerational Relations in The Era of Housing Financialisation.’ Critical Housing Analysis 5 (2): 14–26. https://doi.org/10.13060/23362839.2018.5.2.439 

Ronald, R., J. Kadi 2018. ‘The Revival of Private Landlords in Britain’s Post-Homeownership Society.’ New Political Economy 23 (6): 786–803. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563467.2017.1401055  

Rosen, E., P. M. E. Garboden 2022. ‘Landlord Paternalism: Housing the Poor with a Velvet Glove.’ Social Problems 69 (2): 470–491. https://doi.org/10.1093/socpro/spaa037

Sagner, P., M. Voigtländer 2021. Wohneigentumspolitik in Europa. Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.iwkoeln.de/studien/pekka-sagner-michael-voigtlaender-wohneigentumspolitik-in-europa.html

Scanlon, K., M. F. Arrigoitia, C. Whitehead 2015. ‘Social Housing in Europe.’ European Policy Analysis (17): 1–12. 

Soaita, A.M., B. A. Searle, K. McKee, T. Moore 2017. ‘Becoming a Landlord: Strategies of Property-Based Welfare in the Private Rental Sector in Great Britain.’ Housing Studies 32 (5): 613–637. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2016.1228855

Socioeconomic Panel 2022. Version 37: Daten der Jahre 1984–2020. Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung. https://doi.org/10.5684/soep.core.v37eu

Verstraete, J., M. Moris 2019. ‘Action-Reaction. Survival Strategies of Tenants and Landlords in the Private Rental Sector in Belgium.’ Housing Studies 34 (4): 588–608. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2018.1458290

Voigtländer, M., B. Seipelt 2017. Perspektiven für private Kleinvermieter. Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft. Retrieved 31 May, 2023, from https://www.iwkoeln.de/fileadmin/publikationen/2017/361123/Gutachten_Perspektiven_fuer_private_Kleinvermieter.pdf

Weber, M. 2019. Economy and Society. A new Translation. Cambridge: Harvard University.

 

Please, login first to add a comment.
Document Type
article
ISSN
2336-2839
Volume / Issue
10 / 1
Pages
66-76
Date of publication
30.6.2023

Cite this article

copy
Kadelke, P. 2023. ‘Landlords vs Tenants = Top vs Bottom? Class Positions in Rental Housing in Germany.’ Critical Housing Analysis 10 (1): 66-76. https://doi.org/10.13060/23362839.2023.10.1.554