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Reference guide

CHA uses the author-date format of in-text references, e.g. (Smith 2002). When there are more than three authors, give only the first author's name followed by 'et al'. If two or more works by the same author published in the same year are cited, the relevant references in the text and in the reference list should be distinguished by adding a lower-case letter to the year, e.g. 2000a, 2000b, and so on.

If the name of the author is mentioned in the text, put only the year of publication in brackets immediately following the name, e.g. Bauman (1968); if the name of the author is not mentioned in the text, put the name of the author(s) and the year in brackets, e.g. (Bauman 1968) and where necessary indicate the cited pages following a colon (Bauman 1968: 128–150).

List multiple in-text citations presented together in alphabetical order or date order and separated by semi-colons (Boelhouwer and van der Heijden 1992; Kemeny 1992, 1995).

For institutional or similar authorship, consistently indicate minimal identification from the citation, e.g. (OECD 2000).

For sources scheduled for publication use ‘in press’ or ‘forthcoming’, e.g. Smith (forthcoming; for dissertations and unpublished sources cite the date and if there is no date use ‘n.d.’, e.g. Quigley (n.d.).

For machine-readable data files, cite authorship and date (year): (Delft University of Technology 2001).

The full list of all references cited in the paper should be included at the end of the text; list references in alphabetical order by author’s surname, and in ascending chronological order for each author.

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) should be used to cite and link to all documents with an assigned DOI number. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon its initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press', because they do not yet have their full bibliographic information.


1. Journal article:

  • Haffner, M. E. A., H. J. F. M. Boumeester 2010. ‘The Affordability of Housing in the Netherlands: An Increasing Income Gap Between Renting and Owning?’ Housing Studies 25 (6): 799-820. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2010.51147

2. Book chapter:

  • Meen, G. 2003. ‘Housing, Radom Walks, Complexity and the Macroeconomy.’ Pp. 90-109 in T. Sullivan, K. Gibb (eds.) Housing Economics & Public Policy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

3. Book, authored:

  • Barr, N. 1998. The Economics of the Welfare State. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Haffner, M., J. Hoekstra, M. Oxley, H. van der Heijden 2009. Bridging the Gap between Social and Market Rental Housing in Six European Countries? Amsterdam: IOS Press.

4. Book, edited:

  • Hallet, G. (ed.) 1993. The New Housing Shortage: Housing Affordability in Europe and the USA. London: Routledge.

5. Conference papers:

  • Haffner, M., M. Oxley 2011. House Price Volatility and Taxation. European Network for Housing Research Conference, 5. – 8. 7. 2011, Toulouse, France. http://www.enhr2011.com/

6. Dissertation:

  • Price, K. B. 2003. A Study of the Relationship between Stress and Job satisfaction in Sales Organizations: Its Impact on Employee Turnover. Doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University.

7. Published and forthcoming articles with or without a DOI:

  • 7.1 In press
    • Drakakis-Smith, D. 2013. Urbanisation, Housing and the Development Process. London and New York: Routledge. (in press)
  • 7.2. Article with a DOI (with page numbers)
  • 7.3. Article with DOI (before publication and without page numbers)
    • Lelevrier, C. 2013. ‘Forced Relocation in France: How Residential Trajectories Affect Individual Experiences.’ Housing Studies (in press). First published online 30 July 2012. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673037.2013.767883
  • 7.4. Article with a DOI in an electronic journal  (no paginated version)

8. Internet publication/online document: