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Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in Europe: Legacies, New Trends and the Crisis

29.6.2017 | Teresio Poggio, Christine Whitehead | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 1-10 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.3.1.319
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing Models: Past and Future

This paper looks at the rationale for social housing; examines the models that have been used in Europe over the last century and how social housing might be maintained into the future.
28.6.2017 | Christine Whitehead | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 11-20 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.320
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in England: Affordable vs ''Affordable''

England''s increasing housing affordability problem, widely described as a ''housing crisis'', has become a major public and political concern in recent years. The proportion of social housing has been shrinking for 40 years but there is no political appetite—at least under the current government—to reverse this. Policies are instead addressed at making some private housing more affordable and at increasing access to owner occupation by allowing more social tenants to buy their homes. The government has increased its control over the financial affairs of social landlords, who are responding by concentrating on those areas of activity where control is less stringent.
27.6.2017 | Kathleen Scanlon | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 21-30 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.321
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Reregulation and Residualization in Dutch Social Housing: A Critical Evaluation of New Policies

The Dutch social rental sector often serves as an example for other countries as a result of its large share and good quality housing. However, many things have changed in the sector in recent years. After 2011, the central government has regained its control over the housing associations. This was needed after the unacceptable amount of scandals that characterized Dutch social housing after 2000. Unfortunately, some of the new housing policies direct the sector into the direction of a residualization (the sector becomes smaller and there is a larger concentration of lower income groups). This is undesirable because the challenges that housing associations have to face are bigger than ever. Housing shortages are increasing, housing affordability is under pressure and spatial segregation is growing.
26.6.2017 | Joris Hoekstra | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 31-39 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.322
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Crisis? What Crisis? Social Renting in Flanders (Belgium) beyond the Financial Crisis

In this paper we look at the position of social renting in Flanders after the GFC. It is argued that the GFC has hardly affected the production levels of social rental dwellings. On the contrary levels remain higher than before the GFC. Starting from that, we briefly illustrate what the current debates in social rental housing are.

25.6.2017 | Pascal De Decker, Jana Verstraete, Isabelle Pannecoucke | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 40-51 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.323
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

The Social Homeownership Model – the Case of Norway

This article gives a brief overview of recent developments in Norwegian social housing emphasizing the years after the global financial crisis (GFC). In Norway, mass homeownership has been an important part of social housing in the post-war period. The GFC led to a more rigorous housing finance system, which in turn affected the possibilities of young adults entering homeownership. Nevertheless, the share of young homeowners has been stable or even growing in recent years. Today, social housing mainly refers to a rather marginal system providing housing for the most vulnerable groups.
24.6.2017 | Hans Christian Sandlie, Lars Gulbrandsen | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 52-60 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.324
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in Germany: An Inevitably Shrinking Sector?

The role of the social housing sector as part of the German housing system has changed fundamentally since 1950. Social housing in Germany followed a number of common trends and features to be observed in most countries in Europe: delegation to local government, a narrow focus on fragile populations and a reduction in the proportion of social housing. The specific reasons for this are discussed as relating to the German background. Against a background of more and more tense housing markets the paper argues for a revitalization of social housing in Germany without repeating the old mistakes.
23.6.2017 | Stefan Kofner | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 61-71 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.325
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

The Situation of Social Housing in Switzerland

Without a national or cantonal policy for the provision of affordable, so-called social housing, Switzerland`s way is unique in Europe. Finding appropriate housing is left to the people themselves. The challenge of building sustainable communities in urban centres in Switzerland has to address the tight housing market due to economic growth, immigration, and the renewed attractiveness of urban living. In the absence of a national low-cost housing policy, every growing city thus has to design its own strategies and implement local policies and programmes in order to counteract such developments. The role of housing cooperatives is important now and in the future. The paper gives an overview on the Swiss situation after the GFC and discusses the successful strategies of the provision and protection of affordable housing in the major city of Zurich.
22.6.2017 | Marie Glaser | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 72-80 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.326
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in the Czech Republic: Change of Trend?

The goal of this paper is (1) to describe the history and the most recent development of social housing system in the Czech Republic and (2) critically assess earlier and recent attempts to solve missing social housing strategy in this country. In general, the paper intends to contribute to literature on housing policy formulation in countries in transition from planning to market economy and thus provide insight into main factors that may explain unsustainability and weakness of housing strategies in post-socialist environment. Lack of competence, constrained discussion during programme/strategy preparation and the dominance of ideology over rational argument are found to be critical factors for the past and possibly future social housing policy failures in the Czech Republic.
21.6.2017 | Martin Lux, Petr Sunega | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 81-89 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.327
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in Post-crisis Hungary: A Reshaping of the Housing Regime under ‘Unorthodox’ Economic and Social Policy

Hungary stepped on a very specific path two years into the Global Financial Crisis and the recession in its wake, on which it replaced ‘traditional’ austerity programs with ‘unorthodox’ economic policy. This policy paradigm shift affected the emerging social housing policy in two respects. First, the mainstream approach to social problems related to worsening housing affordability (due to increased loan repayments and other cost items together with decreasing incomes) provided strong support for the middle class. Second, intervention toward low income households remained minimal, and served only to pacify political tensions. This dual approach characterized the policy of the government, and resulting shift in the social structure did not necessarily follow the direction policy makers intended. Programs aimed at the middle class were poorly targeted, and often helped the upper middle class the most, who again did not behave the way policy makers expected (which would have been increased consumption to stimulate economic growth). Programs aimed at low income groups rendered the social structure more rigid, decreased the chance of low income persons to escape from extreme poverty, and cemented the opportunity discrepancies between the rich and the poor. The most recent housing policy measures suggest that the mistakes committed in the 2000s will likely be repeated, and there are not measures in place which could correct their course.
20.6.2017 | József Hegedüs | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 90-101 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.328
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

"Just Another" or A "Genuine" Change in Slovenian Social Housing Strategy?

This paper provides an overview of developments affecting Slovenian social housing after the country’s transition to a market economy. It analyses the Slovenian institutional framework, its functioning and critically evaluates its sustainability. The economic and social impacts of the global financial crisis saw the sector face strong challenges and revealed its weaknesses. A new strategic document was adopted in 2015 to respond to the situation. Although this new document offers a transition to the more sustainable and better provision of social housing in practice, it is still too early for optimism since it would not be the first time in Slovenia that a strategic document has primarily remained only on the declaratory level.
19.6.2017 | Andreja Cirman | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 102-111 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.329
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in Italy: Old Problems, Older Vices and Some New Virtues?

Social housing in Italy, its historical and recent developments, and its criticalities are discussed considering both the pre- and the post-crisis period. The main effects of the crisis on Italian households and the exacerbating of housing problems are also analysed. A critical review of the main policy instruments implemented before and after the crisis is provided, with a special focus on new models of intervention. It is not clear how the housing needs of low income households will be addressed in the near future. Traditional public-managed social housing has been left with insufficient resources while the newly-built affordable housing sector is mainly targeting mid-income households. Several new policy instruments have been deployed and billions of euros invested. Nevertheless, it is still difficult to observe a consistent strategy oriented to increasing the level of social protection in the housing domain, beyond the conventional management of “emergencies”. Keywords: economic crisis; housing policy; Italy; social housing.
18.6.2017 | Teresio Poggio, Dmitri Boreiko | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 112-123 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.330
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

More Social Housing? A Critical Analysis on Social Housing Provision in Spain

Since the 1950s Spain has developed a set of policies aimed at stimulating ownership through subsidies mainly in the form of interest rates or mortgage quotas to developers and households neglecting other forms of housing provision, for instance social rent. That system provided one off benefit to the developer and/or the purchaser and could not be reused to help other households. The financial crisis in 2008 evidenced the weakness of the Spanish housing system in providing affordable and secure shelter by means other than homeownership. The existent housing provision system failed to avoid the large number of evictions while simultaneously banks became owners of a large amount of empty dwellings. To some extent, the severity of the situation exerted considerable political pressure to devise a new framework for action to alleviate the housing problem in Spain. In this paper based on the post -crisis evidence we argue the need to reformulate approaches to provide adequate and affordable housing for certain collectives in Spain
17.6.2017 | Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway, Teresa Sánchez-Martínez | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 124-131 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.331
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Moving to a New Housing Pattern? New Trends in Housing Supply and Demand in Times of Changing. The Portuguese Case

This article aims to explain the effects of the recent economic and financial crisis on housing conditions and the ability of Portuguese families to access housing. It also intends to discuss how the crisis is reconfiguring the housing patterns, in terms of access to housing and changes in public policies, questioning the predominant mode of access to housing based on homeownership. This article also discusses the role of social housing in the Portuguese housing system and the changes and challenges in this sector coming from the economic and financial constraints of families and the state. This article is structured in three parts. The first is an overview of the Portuguese housing system and social housing in particular, highlighting the conditions and reasons that led to a reduced social housing stock and to the predominance of homeownership. The second part discusses the impact of the crisis on families and the state, trying to demonstrate how the constraints on both are translated into (1) worsening housing conditions, (2) a diversification of groups struggling to access housing in the private market and (3) a reduction of affordable housing, pressing the social housing sector. Finally, the third part is a reflection on the changes that the crisis has had in the orientation of housing policies and their instruments, arguing that the patterns of the Portuguese housing system are changing with emphasis on the need to diversify the housing supply to increasingly diverse groups in housing need.
16.6.2017 | Teresa Costa Pinto | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 131-141 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.332
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

The Danish Social Housing Sector: Recent Changes and Future Challenges

With Denmark faring reasonably well through the global financial crisis, the policy changes to the social housing sector caused by the crisis have been limited. Nevertheless, changes have taken place nonetheless both in terms of policy and in the residential composition of the sector which policies are trying to react upon. This means that the sector is at a cross-road as this paper will show. The future remains uncertain; depending to a large extent on the application of the policies already in place and policy reactions to the current challenges.
15.6.2017 | Rikke Skovgaard Nielsen, Christian Deichmann Haagerup | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 142-149 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.333
Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

The Swedish Housing Market from a Low Income Perspective

After the economic crisis in the early 1990s there was excess supply of housing, but over the last 25 years demand has increased because of rising population, rising incomes and low levels of housing construction. The result has been rising prices and longer queues to (rent regulated) rental housing. The lack of affordable housing has made the situation especially difficult for low-income "outsiders", e.g. immigrant groups and various marginalized groups. In the debate about explanations and policies one can find demand for "more market", e.g. deregulating the rental market, weaken the municipal planning monopoly and cutting back on building regulations. There are also proposals for "less market", e.g. state directives about municipal planning volumes, subsidies to housing construction and more active municipal housing companies. As the current government is weak, most initiatives comes from the local level, e.g. both below market rents for lower income households and planning for more low-cost housing.
14.6.2017 | Hans Lind | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 150-160 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.334